Here’s a look at 90 of them.
We’re just three months into the new year, and lawmakers—a handful of whom are pictured above—have already proposed 168 anti-abortion bills at the state and federal levels.
Why does this matter? More than four decades ago, Roe v. Wade affirmed a person’s constitutional right to privacy, effectively legalizing abortion nationwide. But lawmakers have continued proposing and passing bills that make abortion—a medical procedure—harder to access.
Yet these anti-abortion legislators persist—in spite of research that shows that countries with the strictest anti-abortion laws actually have some of the highest rates of abortions in the world, and that there’s a correlation between defunding Planned Parenthood and an increase in maternal mortality rate. Overwhelming evidence indicates that smarter, more humane ways to actually lower the abortion rate involve improving healthcare and healthcare access—such as by making contraception and family planning services more available, not less. But in our country, (overwhelmingly male) politicians continue proposing and passing laws that impede access to safe and constitutionally protected medical care.
Here are 90 of the 168 anti-abortion bills that have been proposed so far in 2017.
There’s a bill that says patients have to receive permission to have an abortion from the person who impregnated them.
- Oklahoma House Bill 1441, proposed by Justin Humphrey
Oklahoma Representative Justin Humphrey introduced a bill that would prevent people from having abortions until they’ve received official permission to do so from the people who impregnated them.
“I believe one of the breakdowns in our society is that we have excluded the man out of all of these types of decisions,” Humprey said, explaining his bill. “I understand that [women] feel like that is their body. I feel like it is a separate—what I call them is, is you’re a ‘host.’ And you know when you enter into a relationship you’re going to be that host and so, you know, if you pre-know that, then take all precautions and don’t get pregnant. So that’s where I’m at. I’m like, hey, your body is your body and be responsible with it. But after you’re irresponsible then don’t claim, well, I can just go and do this with another body, when you’re the host and you invited that in.”
There’s a bill that requires medical providers to interfere with an abortion if the fetus shows any signs of life.
- Arizona Senate Bill 1367, proposed by Steve Smith
The Arizona Senate has passed a bill that requires medical professionals to try to resuscitate aborted embryos and fetuses if they show any signs of life—whether the embryo or fetus is viable or not. Right now, doctors only perform these measures on a case-by-case basis when the chance of survival is high. One doctor told CBS that attempting medical interventions at early stages in gestational development is “cruel” to the parents and would inflict unnecessary harm on a fetus or embryo that likely wouldn’t survive anyway.
There are eight bills that force medical providers to bury or cremate fetal remains—or otherwise specify how medical providers should dispose of fetal remains.
- Arkansas House Bill 1566, proposed by Kim Hammer
- Missouri House Bill 147, proposed by Tom Hurst
- Missouri House Bill 194, proposed by Diane Franklin
- Mississippi Senate Bill 2486, proposed by Michael Watson
- Ohio Senate Bill 28, proposed by Tom Patton
- Texas House Bill 2348, proposed by Valoree Swanson
- Texas Senate Bill 406, proposed by Bob Hall
- Washington House Bill 1243, proposed by Brad Klippert
Doctors already have established protocols for how they sanitarily dispose of medical waste. But these eight bills would require them to treat fetal tissue differently. “Many doctors and medical organizations have said that [these laws] do nothing for any public health purpose,” David Brown, senior staff attorney at the Center for Reproductive Rights, previously told SELF. “It’s a way of putting additional pressure on clinics in the hopes that some won’t be able to withstand the pressure and close. It’s one more potential obstacle to them having to keep their doors open.”
There are five bills that allow patients to sue their abortion providers, even decades later.
- Florida House Bill 19, proposed by Larry Ahern
- Florida Senate Bill 1140, proposed by Kelli Stargel
- Iowa Senate File 26, proposed by Mark Chelgren
- Minnesota House File 601, proposed by Kathy Lohmer
- Tennessee House Bill 663, proposed by Matthew Hill
These bills would allow patients to sue their abortion providers for emotional distress—even years after receiving the procedure. And while some, like Iowa Senator Mark Chelgren, see bills like these as a way to protect people seeking abortions, legal experts say the consequences could be severe. “When you look at it more carefully, it’s a threat to the woman because it creates deterrents for doctors to do this,” Mark Kende, J.D., director of the Constitutional Law Center at Drake University, told the Associated Press. In other words, the threat of being sued retroactively could scare doctors out of providing abortions at all—which ultimately hurts people who are seeking them.
There are seven bills that ban abortion entirely.
- Colorado House Bill 1108, proposed by Stephen Humphrey
- Kentucky House Bill 419, proposed by Mary Marzian
- Mississippi House Bill 1197, proposed by Dan Eubanks
- Oklahoma Senate Bill 732, proposed by David Brumbaugh
- Oklahoma Senate Bill 817, proposed by Joseph Silk
- Texas House Bill 948, proposed by Tony Tinderholt
- Texas House Bill 1049, proposed by Valoree Swanson
Some of these bills recognize life as beginning at conception, and view abortions at any state of gestational development as murder. Others seek to criminalize medical providers who perform abortions. All seven view abortion as unlawful in some form or fashion, and all would ban the procedure entirely (with select exceptions, depending on the bill).
There are 10 misleadingly named “Heartbeat Bills” that ban abortions after fetal cardiac activity is detectable—usually around the six-week mark.
- Federal House Resolution 490, proposed by Steve King
- Alabama House Bill 154, proposed by Terri Collins
- Missouri Senate Bill 408, proposed by Andrew Koenig
- Mississippi House Bill 1198, proposed by Chris Brown
- Mississippi Senate Bill 2562, proposed by Angela Burks Hill
- Mississippi Senate Bill 2584, proposed by Michael Watson
- New York Assembly Bill 5384, proposed by Brian Kolb
- Oklahoma Senate Bill 710, proposed by Paul Scott
- Tennessee House Bill 108, proposed by James Van Huss
- Tennessee Senate Bill 244, proposed by Mae Beavers
So-called “Heartbeat Bills” ban abortions from the moment fetal cardiac activity is detectable. This typically happens around the five- or -week mark—before many people even realize they’re pregnant. (Learn more about what it means to be six weeks pregnant here.) Nine of these bills have been introduced at the state level, but Iowa congressman Steve King proposed the first federal six-week abortion ban: the “Heartbeat Protection Act of 2017.”
Other states, like North Dakota and Arkansas, have attempted to pass similar bills in the past—but their efforts were blocked in higher courts for being unconstitutional.
There are 18 bills that ban abortions after 20 weeks, based on the unsubstantiated claim that fetuses can feel pain at this point.
- Florida House Bill 203, proposed by Joe Gruters
- Florida Senate Bill 348, proposed by Greg Steube
- Illinois House Bill 3210, proposed by Jerry Costello
- Iowa House File 298, proposed by Dave Heaton
- Iowa Senate File 53, proposed by Brad Zaun
- Kentucky Senate Bill 5, proposed by Brandon Smith
- Massachusetts House Bill 934, proposed by Elizabeth Poirier
- Maryland House Bill 547, proposed by Barrie Ciliberti
- Missouri House Bill 692, proposed by Tila Hubrecht
- Missouri House Bill 757, proposed by Phil Christofanelli
- Montana Senate Bill 329, proposed by Keith Regier
- New Jersey Assembly Bill 3452, proposed by Ronald Dancer
- New Jersey Senate Bill 2026, proposed by Steven Oroho
- New York Assembly Bill 4777, proposed by David DiPietro
- Oregon House Bill 3017, proposed by Sherrie Sprenger
- Pennsylvania Senate Bill 3, proposed by Mike Folmer
- Virginia House Bill 963, proposed by Dave LaRock
- Virginia House Bill 1473, proposed by Dave LaRock
Twenty-week abortion bans are based on the idea that fetuses can feel pain at this stage in development—despite there being no medical evidence to support that reasoning. These bills are similar to laws already in place in 16 states and to two that were blocked for being unconstitutional.
Worth mentioning: Almost 99 percent of abortions occur before the 20-week mark, according to Planned Parenthood. Often, people who seek late-term abortions do so because they’ve discovered serious fetal anomalies that weren’t apparent earlier. “These are often desperately desired pregnancies that have gone wrong,” Lauren Streicher, M.D., an associate professor of clinical obstetrics and gynecology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, previously told SELF.
There are 12 bills that ban abortions through dilation and evacuation, the safest and most common way for a woman in her second trimester to have an abortion.
- Arkansas House Bill 1032, proposed by Andy Mayberry
- Illinois House Bill 2891, proposed by Brandon Phelps
- Maryland House Bill 1167, proposed by William Wivell
- Maryland Senate Bill 841, proposed by Justin Ready
- Missouri House Bill 537, proposed by Tila Hubrecht
- New Jersey Assembly Bill 1700, proposed by Ronald Dancer
- Pennsylvania House Bill 77, proposed by Kathy Rapp
- Rhode Island House Bill 5100, proposed by Arthur Corvese
- South Carolina House Bill 3548, proposed by Sean Bennett
- South Dakota House Bill 1189, proposed by Isaac Latterell
- Texas House Bill 844, proposed by Stephanie Klick
- Texas Senate Bill 415, proposed by Charles Perry
Dilation and evacuation abortions—or D&E abortions—involve two steps. First, a woman’s cervix is dilated. Second, a doctor surgically removes the contents of the patient’s uterus. The American Medical Association recognizes this as the safest way a woman can terminate a pregnancy beyond the 14-week gestational mark. It’s also the most common way for people in their second trimesters to end pregnancies, as D&E is used in 95 percent of second-trimester abortions.
There are 12 bills that require patients to be offered ultrasounds, have ultrasounds, or listen to sonograms before they can have the abortions they’re seeking.
- Alabama House Bill 131, proposed by Kerry Rick
- Connecticut Senate Bill 330, proposed by Michael McLachlan
- Illinois House Bill 283, proposed by Barbara Wheeler
- Indiana Senate Bill 118, proposed by Dennis Kruse
- Kentucky House Bill 2, proposed by Jeff Hoover
- Massachusetts House Bill 936, proposed by Elizabeth Poirier
- Missouri House Bill 404, proposed by Tila Hubrecht
- New Jersey Assembly Bill 689, proposed by John DiMaio
- New Jersey Senate Bill 476, proposed by Steven Oroho
- New York Assembly Bill 5374, proposed by David DiPietro
- New York Assembly Bill 5637, proposed by Brian Curran
- Wyoming House Bill 182, proposed by Chuck Gray
Ten different states have introduced bills that would require patients to jump a series of hoops before they can have the abortions they’re seeking. (Both New Jersey and New York have introduced two.) Some of these bills require people to have ultrasounds, and others require them to listen to sonogram results. Some just require medical providers to offer to perform ultrasounds on people seeking abortions. If passed, all of them would force people to take additional steps to have the abortions they want or need.
There are 16 other bills that make patients undergo counseling or wait a certain period of time before they’re allowed to have abortions.
- Colorado House Bill 1086, proposed by Justin Everett
- Georgia Senate Bill 239, proposed by Bruce Thompson
- Indiana House Bill 1128, proposed by Ronald Bacon
- Kansas House Bill 2319, proposed by Tony Arnberger
- Kansas Senate Bill 98, proposed by Molly Baumgardner
- Missouri House Bill 382, proposed by Sonya Anderson
- Missouri Senate Bill 230, proposed by Jeanie Riddle
- North Carolina House Bill 62, proposed by Larry Pittman
- Nebraska Legislative Bill 59, proposed by Bill Kintner
- South Dakota Senate Bill 102, proposed by Thomas Nelson
- Texas House Bill 612, proposed by Jeff Leach
- Texas House Bill 1971, proposed by Matt Schaefer
- Texas Senate Bill 258, proposed by Donald Huffines
- Utah House Bill 107, proposed by Stephen Handy
- Utah House Bill 141, Keven Stratton
- Virginia House Bill 1762, Robert Marshall
State legislators have also introduced bills that would require patients to undergo specific kinds of counseling or wait a certain period of time before they can actually have the abortions they’re seeking. Sometimes, these bills result in people having to make more than one appointment, which can be especially difficult for people who live in rural areas and have to drive long distances to get to a medical provider in the first place.